William Wallace Tooker
Montauk Indian Place Names Map Project (work in progress)
(THE IMAGES PRESENTED ARE FOR EDUCATIONAL AND INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES AND MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED FOR ANY REASON).
"They had no name to difference them from strangers except that which signifies men, folke or people and the names that they take from thier place of residence." - Roger Williams
"Meuntacut "later known as Turtle Hill and location of
Montauk Lighthouse. Tooker photo in 1898 with
lighthouse elctronically removed.
An indeginous person of Paumanack who was born and
lived nearby this hilly point of land called Meuntacut.
Both images modified and identified on previous pages.
"One of the most significant aspects of human history is the story of race-contact. All over the globe abundant evidences of such contact occur in geographical names, which are sometimes the only memorials of themselves, which the so-called 'lower' races are able to transmit to the "higher." The Red Man, however, has not been so unfortunate, for he has influenced in many ways the language, the economic life, and even the institutions of his conquerors and dispossessors." - Excerpt from Introduction by A F Chamberlain on Indian Place Names on Long Island, dated May 22, 1911.
William Wallace Tooker's handwritten manuscript for his 1911 book Indian Place Names on Long Island. Note red underlined section. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collection, Carl A. Kroch Library,Cornell University.
The Montauk Indian Place Names Project . . . THE MAP
The Montauk Indian Place Names Map Project is being created in appreciation and celebration of Tooker's 100th anniversary of his book( Indian Place Names on Long Island ,published in 1911, Kennikat Press (Ira J. Friedman Division, Port Washington, NY). It further acknowledges Stephen Taukus Pharoah known as Stephen Talkhouse as a prominent figure in the early history on Montauk. Tooker recognized his importance cultural and historic significance but is appreciated by a select audience. For the general public Talkhouse is that old Indian in the photograph. Although incomplete the map portion of the project is being launched mid August 2011 in rememberance of the death of both Tooker on August 2 and Talkhouse on August 30th.
The Montauk Indian Place Names Project Map originally conceived in 1976 is an extension of the life long efforts of William Wallace Tooker to educate and enlighten the public by interpreting and recording Indian Place names of Long Island. Surprisingly, in view of Tooker's record keeping abilities and propensity to draw and photograph there is no evidence he produced any graphic illustration identifying place name locations other than a few photographs. Considering the techological tools available today this is a project Tooker would do. The project is part of proposed larger photographic projects The Big Picture: Tooker Captures Early America that illustrates his work and influence as an early American photographer and On The Back of the Turtle a photographic study of Montauk as a transformational reflection of the American Experiment.
What photograpghy does best is to tell a story. Despite the much appreciated and valued work of historians, scholars and writers there is no photographic imagery specifically associated with Montauk Indian Place Names. To help tell the story of Monatuk Indian Place Names this website page takes causal license, for educational and informational purposes, in modifying certain images to create a perception of no human involvement in the photographs. The modifications stir the imagination and awaken the subconscious to create a new perception from the original image. The photographic image is a direct communicative link to the viewer that essentially says this is the way is was for a brief moment in time. You can imagine what it was like or create a "what if" scenario. For example, could you imagine being a Montaukett walking along the beach and approaching the beached whale. It must of been exciting as the whale was like gold as it brought prosperity and goodness to the people. Could you imagine being the first person after endless days of walking the beach or fields in search of food and habitat and see the final point of land. They may have said it looks like a turtle! Tooker photographs as well as other contemporary images used are modified so that the viewer will have a sense of what Montauk may have looked like before European settlement. Some images are contemporary and reflect places and things that the Montauketts may have witnessed during daily life such as a finning swordfish in Fort Pond Bay (Chebiakinnausuk), the snowy cliffs of Driftwood Cove(Wamponamon-Wompenanit).
The map presented here is a conceptual working map, not to scale and offers no presentation for accuracy. The final interactive map will be as authentic as possible. The hand drawn water-colored map makes no representations of authencity and only provides the viewers with a general area for the place names. The trails in black lines are derived from old maps and common knowledge of the area and their locations are not to be considered accurate. At this point viewers will be able to identify the "place names" on the map and then cross reference with actual description from the book. The final map will include an interactive tour complete with video is anticipated to be completed by the end of 2011.
The Place Name Montauk
The name "Montauk" is derived from Algonquian language used by the indeginous people who occupied the area east of Neapeague for thousands of years. Tooker notes it as " point of land and peninsular on the eastern end of the island." The word "Meuntacut" was used to identify the place as "high land" and with another element of interpretation "manatuck" meaning "a place for observation" the final interpretation for the point of land was reduced it to "Montauk." (See Tooker's descriptions P. 141 Number 213). For the past few hundred years the entire area east of Neapeague is known as Montauk and within this area Tooker identifies 20 other place names that have long faded away. Montauk, New York is widely recognized by the world community as an international mecca for sun, fun, fishing and in 1925 was promoted as " A Millionaires Paradise." For those interested in American history it is a mecca of fascinating early American activities. The "hilly land" is now known as Turtle Hill and is the site of the Montauk Point Lighthouse built in 1796.
As the world population grew and Europeans settled in the "new world" the indigenous people were identified by the place they lived. With many living on or near the peninsular and hilly point of land the Europeans called them "Montauketts" and further identified them as a "tribe " of Indians because an early European explorer thought he landed in India he called the inhabitants "Indians." In a 1798 document by John Lyon Gardiner transcribing the Montaukett language from George Pharoah of the Montaukett tribe indicates "Inchun" as "Indian." This term is commonly accepted in the United States today.
Many appreciations to archivist and researcher Steve Boerner and Montauk land surveyor Bill Walsh for their contributed work on this project.
Aerial photograph(modified)is a December 1925 Fairchild Aerial Survey photograh possibly taken for Carl Fisher's promotion for Montauk. The roads have been removed to give viewer a sense what Montauk may have looked like hundreds of years ago. One can see the paths leading to the ocean.( For educational and informal use).
Swordfish, Xiphas Gladius Linneaus, were common in Long Island Sound and Fort Pond Bay with recorded images in the 1920's
Copy of William Wallace Tooker's handwritten manuscript for his 1911 book Indian Place Names on Long Island.
"MONTAUK" is listed at the bottom of the page. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collection, Carl A. Kroch Library,Cornell University.
1. 51. chebiakinnausuk, Chabiakinnauhsuk: a locality in the "North Neck," Montauk. One of the bounds of the Wuchebesuck purchase, mentioned in the Indian deed of 1670, viz.: "so on a straight line to Chebiakinnausuck" (Hedges' Address, 1849). Ranger's Deeds, 1840, has Chabiakinnauhsuk. This bound-mark was located at a long brookone of the many outlets of the swamps that dot this section; but the name probably does not refer to the brook itself, as the writer once supposed from its terminal affix. (See Names in East Hampton, E. H. R., vol. iv.) The prefix chebia-or chabia- in this compound name is an equivalent for the Massachusetts (Eliot) chabenuk, "that which divides or separates," "a bound-mark;" as in Job xxxviii., 25, Howan chachaubenuknippee poohsem ut, "who hath divided the water course." The second part corresponds to kinnau-suk, the Massachusetts (Eliot) kuhkinneausuk "you mark," kuhkinneasu, "he marketh." Chabia-kinnausuk thus signifies the marked separation, "where he marketh bounds," " a boundary place," "a bound-mark."
2. 56. choppauhshapaugausuck: a locality on Montauk being the ditch (so-called) or the outlet of the Great Pond on the south, from which "Ditch Plain" derives its name (E. H. R., vol. ii., p. 206). This boundary place is mentioned in the deed of 1670 (sometimes called the nine-score acre purchase, or land between the ponds), viz.: "and so along to the sea-side to a place called Choppauh-shapaugausuck" (Hedges' Address, 1849), Cop-pauhshapaugausuk (Ranger's Deeds, 1850). The first three syllables, chop-pauhsha, are the equivalent of the Massachusetts chippachaug, "a separated place," "apart separated," fromchippai (Eliot), "a part," or "portion" (as in Ezekiel xlv., i, chippai ohke, "portion of land;" Leviticus xvi., 22,chip ohkeit, "land uninhabited," "land apart"); pausha corresponds to paushinum (Eliot) "he divided or separated." (Ps. Ixxviii., 13.) The third part represents paugaus (Eliot), "to widen," "to operate;" the terminal affix -suck, "an outlet," or "a small stream flowing out of a pond," "a brook." Altogether we thus have Chop-pausha-paugau-suck, which therefore means "the place of separation where the brook opens out." See Chebiakinnausuk.
3. 95 gunnunks: a swamp in the North Neck, Montauk. A small tract of land in close proximity is called Gunnunk's Garden. It lies midway between Fort Pond and Culloden Point, at the foot of the range of hills, known as the Rocky Ridge I have been informed by Jonathan Gould, Esq., who lived at the second house for many years, that the swamp and garden took its name from an old squaw who made her home there. Mr. Abraham Schellinger of Amagansett, aged over 80, says, "that he heard his father speak of this squaw who was called Luce Gunnunk, and that she was a very tall woman." It may have been originally the parallel of the Delaware gun-aquat, "tall"; Narragansett and Massachusetts, gunnuqui, or gun'unkq, "tall"; -unk, "a tree" (Trumbull); gun'unk, "a tall standing tree." See Gonux.
View from Tuthill Pond looking towards Fort Hill to the southeast.(Buildings removed).
4. 130. konkhunganik: the name of the southern part of Fort Pond, Montauk, Easthampton town, generally applied by historians to the whole part. First noted in the Indian deed of 1661, viz.: "All the peice or neck of land belonging to Montauk land westward to a fresh pond in abeach, the name of the pond being Quanuntowunk on the north and Konkhunganik on the south," (Hedges's Address, 1849). It appears also as Konhhonganik (Ranger's Deeds, 1850). Other variations are Kongonock, Konkhonganik (original deed in possession of the Bensons), Konhhonganik, Konk-hong-anok, Konhunganock, being erroneous multiplications from the original record. This pond was the eastern limit of the grant, and the exact line was defined by a fence, which the Indians by the terms of the deed were obliged "to secure on ye southside of ye aforesaid pond, from all Cattle, During the time their corn is upon the ground." A fence still stands, as it has done for the past two hundred years, on the same line. The name Konkhunganik signifies "at the boundary, " or " to the line," the parallel of the following Algonkianterms, Massachusetts,kuhkuheganit, "to the line" (Eliot: Isaiah, xxviii., 17); kukhun-hunkganish, "the bounds" (Actsxvii., 26); kuhkoh-hamodnk, "by line" (Psalms Ixxviii., 55); Delaware (Zeisberger) kikhican, "boundary"; Chippewa (Baraga) kikaigan, "mark to guide travellers." See Kanungum and Ronkonkoma.
5. 135 mahchongitchuge: a swamp in the North Neck, Montauk. This name is found recorded in the Indian deed of 1670, for the land between the ponds as follows: "from thence to the swamp where the hay stacks stood called Mahchongitchuge, and so through the swamp to the great pond" (Hedges's Address, 1849). It appears also as Mahchongitchigo (Ranger's Deeds, 1850). This name is susceptible of two definitions, if we apply the Algonkian mode of compounding names: Mahchong machaug (Narragansett, R. Williams), "a swamp;" -itchug, either Massachusetts muskechoge, "a place of rushes," or chip-pitchoge, "a place of separation," "a turning place," from the fact of its being a bound-mark. The last may be nearer correct and denote "the swamp place of separation."
Munchog now Star Island looking northeast from Manunkquiaug area. Notice tall trees on island and reeds on shore.( 1925 bridge under construction removed).
6. 153- manunkquiaug: a locality in the North Neck, Montauk, East Hampton town. Found on record as one of the boundaries in the Montauk Indian deed of 1670, viz.: "then straight from the hay stacks to the great pond,.so along by the said pond to a place called Manunkquiaug on farthest side the reeds, growing on the end of the great pond eastward (Hedges's Address, 1849). The name appears also as Manunkquinaug (Ranger's Deeds, 1850); Manunkquiag (De Kay, 1851). Ranger's Deeds has "woods" in place of "reeds"as in the above. In the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac for 1888 and 1889, I gave the meaning as "Menhaden country," or "fertilizer land," supposing it to be the same as Manunkatuck, Guilford, Conn., of which Mr. Trumbull says: "Probably ' menhaden country' from munonqutteau (mun-nohquohteau, Eliot), ' that which fertilizes or manures land'whence comes Narragansett mun-nawhatteadg (R. Williams), the Indian name of white-fish or bony-fish, 'fertilizers,' now corrupted to menhaden." Further study satisfies me that this cannot be the derivation of the name, the locality on the southern shore of Great Pond on what is now called Ditch Plain, being more or less marshy, with flags and reeds, would not be a place where these fish could have been taken. I am satisfied that it is a form corresponding to the Narragansett anuckquaque, "as far as," "the extreme limit of," "the ending of either land or water"; Chippewa (Baraga) enigokwa, "as wide as," enigokwadessing, "as it is wide." Here we find the name as the extreme eastern limit of the above tract of land, M'anunkqtia-auke, "as far as the land goes," "end of the land," etc. See Wuchebesuck.
7. 213. montauk :point of land and peninsula on the eastern end of the island in East Hampton town, the locality from which the principal island tribe derived their name. In the Indian 'deed to Gov. Eaton of New Haven and his associates in behalf of the inhabitants of East Hampton town, we find it given: "All land lying from bounds of Southampton unto the east side of Napeak, next unto Meuntacut high land" (E. H. R., vol. i., p. 3; S. H. R., vol. i., p. 51). In the published records of this town and sister towns on Long Island the variations in spelling are almost as numerous as the occurrence of the name; amongthem are: Meantaucutt, 1656; Meantaguit, 1660; Meantauket, 1666; Meantucket, 1668; Menataukett, Meantaukut, 1674; Meuntaukut, 1676; Mean-tank, 1687; Mantack, 1692, etc. The signification has been variously given, all without a doubt being in error. Jones's Indian Bulletin for 1867 derives it from the Massachusetts (Eliot) muttaag, "a standard, pillar, or ensign." Dr. J. H. Trumbull, the eminent Algonkian student, suggests that the word is probably a form of manatuck, a name frequently bestowed on high or hilly land throughout New England, and denotes "a place of observation, " " a place for seeing (or to be seen) far off," and not, as he once believed, from manati, "island." Dr. Trumbull quotes the deed of 1648 from Thompson's L. /. where it is misspelled as Mountacutt. The late David Gardiner, in Chronicles of East Hampton, 1840, 1871 (also Ayres's Legends of Montauk), gives it as "the hilly land or country " from having been called in early records the "Meuntacut high land." The writer suggested (E. H. R., vol. iv., Introduction) another derivation,one that has both tradition and history to support it, beside the parallels from neighboring dialects that prove its correctness. On the Montauk high lands were located the palisadoed inclosures of the tribe-their places of refuge in time of danger and peril. The first fort of which we have any knowledge is mentioned in the Montauk deed of 1662, the bounds of which went west to "where the old Indian fort stood," at Nominick Hills on che "east side of Napeak." The new fort, " still standing" in 1662, was located on what is still called "Fort Hill," at Fort Pond, overlooking the bay. The outlines of this fence inclosure (180 feet square) can still be traced after a lapse of over two centuries. Meantaukut or Meuntaukut is therefore the parallel of the Massachusetts (Cotton) Menehke-tauunat, "fortified"; Memutausue (Eliot) = "fortified" (as in Isaiah xxvi., 10, pum-meneutausue keitotan = "deienced city," literally, "the shut or closed fortified great town"); Delaware men-achk, a "fort"; menachkasu, "fortified." The Dutch form, Mirrachtauhacky Delaware, Me'n-achk-hacky, "fort country." The English form, Meuntaukut = Massachusetts Meneutaugut, "at the fort," "fort country," etc. This makes the quotation from the deed of 1648 read: "Unto the fort-place high land." Wood's N. E. Prospect, 1634, p. 2, ch. 13, says: "Thefe Forts fome be fortie or fiftie foote fquare, erected of young timber trees, ten or twelve foote high, rammed into the ground, with undermining within, the earth being caft up for their fhelter againft the dischargements of their enemies: having loope holes," etc. See Brooklyn Eagle Almanac, 1896, pp. 54-55. Also Algon-quian Series, vol. ii., 15-21, for further account of this name.
Munchog now known as Star Island and Chebiakinnausuk to far right
with Manunkquiaugat top right. Modified photo.
8. 216. Munchog, Munchoage: an island in the Great Pond, Montauk. It is mentioned in theEast Hampton accounts for the year 1690 when "Benj. Osborn, Nath. Talmage and John Miller, Jr. were paid five shillings each for going to Montauk to search Munchog or Munchoage." The locality is designated by an entry of Aug. 30, 1709: "when the Trustees ordered that notice be given for the sale of liberty to mow what mowable grass may be found within the Indian field provided they the buyers cut no other than where the rushes growand also what if any may be found mowable on the Island in the Great Pond called Munchoag." Same date: "Ichabod Leeke is debtor by liberty of mowing in the Indian field and on Manchoage as by bargain"; (E. H. R., vol. ii,, p. 248; vol. iii., pp. 216, 219). Munchog seems to designate "an island of meadow," "island of rushes" (from munni, "island"; Narragansett muskechoge, "rushes," "place of rushes"). This derivation seems to be proven by the above records, and in fact a large part of its area is covered by rushes and marsh. In Gardiner's Montauk Vocabulary, we find Cum cheesk, an error for Mun cheesk, "little island" ; mun or mon} "an island"; chiank, "large." From this, Mun-chiank, "large island," being the larger of the two islands in the Great Pond.
9. 223. nahicans: tribe of Indians occupying what is now called Montauk Point; and the eastern part of Long Island, as given on a Dutch map of 1616 (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. i.). It signifies the "people of the point." It might have been applied to Long Island by mistake for Narragansett, this being the anglicized name of the country of the Nahiganeuk (Nanhigganeuck), the "Nahicans" of the early Dutch explorers (Trumbull). James Mooney (Handb. of Am. Inds. N. of Mex., vol. i., I9°7» P- 28) says: "Narraganset'people of the small point,' from naiagans, diminutive of naiag, 'small point of land,' with locative ending, -et."
Beached Whale, Sagaponack, NY 1891 William Wallace Tooker Photo
10. 237- Neapeague: the long sandy and marshy beach that connects the peninsula of Montauk with the main part of the Island, East Hampton town, a dreary waste of sand, water, and mosquitoes. It is first entered on record in 1658, when: " Wyandanch gives to Rev. Thos.James half of all the whales or other great fish that shall be cast on the beach from Napeake eastward to the end of the Island" (E. H. R., vol. i., p 150). Variations are: Napeage, 1675; Napeag, 1700; Napeague, (U. S. Coast Survey); modernly Neapeague, Nap-pe'ag, etc. It signifies the "water land"; in the Montauk dialect Niepeage, from niep (Massachusetts nip or nippe) "water"; -eage (Massachusetts -auke), "land."
This is known as Split Rock or Spirit Rock located in Hither Woods east of Nominiks.
Just below Overlook looking west to Neapeague.
11. 253- nominick :hills on Montauk, East Hampton town. These hills rise out of the sandy waste of Neapeague, forming the bold, rugged outline of the western extremity of Montauk.
Cheerless Neapeague! now bounds the heartto gain The hills that spring beyond thy weary plain. Legends of Montauk (1849).
Variations are: Nummonok, Naumunack, Nom-monock, Nominick, Nomnick. The name is traditional and does not appear in the early records of the town. In the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac for 1888,1 gave it as meaning "high dry land" and in the issue for 1889 as "land or place lifted high," deriving it from a word corresponding to the Delaware aspenumen, Massachusetts, uspunnu-mun, "elevated," "lifted high." I am nowsatisfied as to the error of this, and that the name is the equivalent of the Massachusetts nunnum, "to see" (naumunat, "to be seen"), Delaware, nemeneep,'' I have seen.'' Thus we have naumun-auke, "land to be seen (afar off)."
12. 292. paumanack,Pommanock: a name of Eastern Long Island, governed by the Sachems of Shelter Island and Montauk. The first mention of the name that I have been able to find is in the Indian deed for Gardiner's Island, May 3, 1639: " Yovawan, Sachem of Pommanocc and Aswaw Sachem his wife," etc. (Lechford's Note Book, pp. 129, June 27, 1638 to July 29, 1641). The title "Sachem of Pommanock or Paumanack" was used only by the Sachem of Montauk. The fourSachems of the district covered by this title were brothers, consequently were united into one band for mutual protection and interest. In the various deeds given by the two Sachems the following variations occur: Pommanocc, 1639; Pamunke, 1648; Pammanach, 1656; Pawmanuck, 1658; Pam-manake, 1658; Paumanuck, 1659; Paumanacke, 1659; Pamanack, 1659; Pommanock, 1665. Some authorities have also Paumanacke and Pauman-hacky. The meaning suggested in the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac for 1889: "land where there is travelling by water (cf. the Delaware pomma'-hum, "to travel by water," etc.) seemed to be right as applied to the cove-indented shores of this part of Long Island, but later investigation compelled me to reject it for the one given in the same Almanac for 1890, viz.: "land of tribute." Here pauman or £omwcw = Narragansett, pum-munun, "he offers" or "devotes"; pummen'um, "contributes" (from this comes pumpom, "a tribute of bear's skin"). Eliot has up-paupau-men-uk (Numbers, viii., 21), "he habitually or by custom offers it." Thus we have Pauman-auke, "land of tribute." That this part of Long Island was under tribute at this period and previous both to the Pequots and to the whites, is abundantly proven by all the older writers, such as Gookin, Winthrop, and others. "At a meeting of the Commissioners of the United Colonies of N. E. at Hartford, Sept. 6, 1644, Youghcoe, theSachem of Manhansett on Long Island, presented himself to the court, desiring that, in regard he was tributary to the English and had hitherto observed the articles of agreement heretofore made (1637), he might receive from them a certificate, etc., whereby his relation to the English should appear and he be preserved as much as might be from unjust grievances and vexations." Therefore they gave the following certificate: "and whereas the Indians in the eastern part of Long Island are become tributaries to the English and have engaged their lands to them; and whereas Youghco, Wiantance, Moughmaitow, and Weenaka-min do profess themselves friends to the English and DutchIt is our desire that the said Sagamore and their companions may enjoy full peace" (Plymouth Col. Records, vol. ix., p. 18;Thompson, vol. i., p. 365). See the discussion of Paumanack in the Algonquian Series, vol. iv., pp. 21-38.
These photos were taken the winter of 1977 which was very cold and after a heavy snow fall. The effort was to re-shoot the available aerial photos from 1925 to show the Indian Place Names and the population growth of Montauk. The images presented here are scanned from an old 35mm contact sheet.
14. 312. potinack: a hole or deep depression on Montauk about a mile west of the "Hither Plain" U. S. Life-Saving Station, in close proximity to the cliffs, sometimes filled with water. Bearing the same name are two other holes: (a) Potinack hole, short distance north of the above in the woods, a flaggy hole, (b) Potinack hole, a watering place'at the junction of four farms at Amagansett. In the East Hampton Records (vol. iv., 1889) I translated this name as "where the land sinks," that is "gutting in," making it correspond to the Massachusetts psttoae, with the locative -ack, "land," and related to Potunk. I may be in error as regards this derivation, and it may simply be one of the many forms of Appuhqui-auke. See Appaquogue and Potunk.
North of Quadams at Oyster Pond looking towards Shawong. Photo Circa 1900.
15. 32O. quadams: hill in the Indian field, near the Oyster Pond, Montauk. From the mark of the possessive case, it was probably so-called from some Indian who resided in the "Field."
16. 328. quanuntowunk: northern part of Fort Pond, Montauk, East Hampton town. The Montauk Indian deed of 1661 to the inhabitants of East Hampton gives the following: "All the peice or neck of land, belonging to Muntaukut land westward to a fresh pond in a beach, on this side westward to the place where the old Indian fort stood, on the other side eastward to the new fort that is yet standing, the name of the pond being Quanuntowunk on the north and Konhun-ganik on the south" (Hedges's Address, 1849, Appendix, p. 83). It appears also as Quaunonto-wounk (Ranger's Deeds of Montauk, 1850) and is varied as Quannontowock, Quannotowounk, Quanotowonk. Owing to a mistake made by the late David Gardiner in his Chronicles of East Hampton and quoted by nearly every historian since, this name has been applied to the "Fresh Pond" in the "Hither Woods," when it really belonged to "Fort Pond" ("Muntaukut land westward to a fresh pond in a beach"). This quotation means all the land on the western end of Montauk to a fresh pond as its eastern boundary. The deed was written and executed at West Hampton, the Indians being there under protection of the English, in order to escape the Narra-gansetts, as set forth in the deed: "On this sidewestward (East Hampton side) to where the old Indian fort stood" (on the west side of Nominick Hills at Neapeague). This takes in the whole of "Fresh Pond" and goes nearly a mile further west (see Sale of Montauk and Map, 1879): "On the other side eastward to where the new fort is yet standing" (on Fort Hill overlooking Fresh Pond). The "fresh pond in a beach" describes "Fort Pond," the other being in the woods and surrounded by hills. The name of the pond (only one being mentioned) is Quanun-towunk on the north and Konhunganick on the south. This proves that both names'belong to Fort Pond. In the East Hampton Records (1889, vol. iv.) I suggested a meaning that seemed to be correct by etymology and with reference to the location to which it was applied, viz.: quanon, '' long "; " towunk,'' a ford, '' wading-place,'' referring to the outlet of the pond through which the Indians dragged their canoes. I had previously given an interpretatio i in the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac for 1889, as "where there was a fence." This I now consider more correct than the other, for close study of the deed and of Eliot's Indian Bible has convinced me that it is the parallel of the Massachusetts (Eliot) quaneuntunk, "a division," "turning-place," "a fence." This is used by Eliot sometimes with a prefix as in qussuk-quaneuntun-kanit (Jer. xxxix., 4," a wall''; literally '' at the place of the stone division"). Quanuntowunk was the"fence" that divided or separated the beach on the northern part of the pond, and is referred to in the deed, viz.: "know ye allso yt for ye securing of ye Easterne parte of Montaukut Land, which ye Indians are to live upon, yt the Inhabitants of ye aforesaid East Hampton shall from time to time, keep up a sufficient fence upon ye North side of ye foresaid pond, and the Indians are to secure ye South side of ye foresaid pond, from all cattle, During ye time their corn is upon the ground." Thus Quanuntowunk was the "fence" on the north; Konkhonganik the "fence" on the south. The original deed has the name Quaun-nontowounk.
17. 385. shagwong: a hill, point of land, and a reef of rocks on the northeastern part of Montauk, in the "Indian Fields." Variations are: Shag-wagonock, Shagwannock, Shaugwong, Shagawom, Shagivommonock, Shagwanack (various maps and histories of Long Island). The name is not found in the town records nor in any of the Indian deeds. Not having any early forms of the above to guide us it is difficult to tell its derivation. It seems to be the equivalent of the Delaware (Zeisberger) schajawonge, "on the side of a hill," with the locative, "place on the side of a hill." The Indian huts until a few years ago were located on the side of this hill.
18. 386. shahchippitchage :a bound-mark in the "North Neck," Montauk, East Hampton town. Mentioned in the Montauk Indian deed of 1670, viz.: "Shahchippitchage being on the North side of ye sd Land, midway between great pond and Fort Pond" (Hedges's Address, 1847). A variant is Shahchippetchuge (Ranger's Deeds, 1851). The names mentioned in this deed were evidently bestowed at the time the land was laid out, as theyare all bound-marks, this one being a pile of stones. The name is composed of shah, a form corresponding to the Massachusetts nashaue (Eliot), "in the middle," "midway" (frequently abbreviated to ashwa-, shaw-, shew-, she-, etc.). Chippitchage = Massachusetts chip''pachaug (Eliot), "a separated place," "place of separation.' This makes the name Shah-chip'pachaug, "the midway place of separation," as stated in the above.
Downtown Montauk circa 1925 during building by Carl Fisher. Could be a Fairchild Aerial
Survey photo. This photo is not modified but is very important to understand place names.(For eductional and informational use).
19. 389. shawango:"neck between Great Pond and Fort Pond, Ocean side, Montauk" (De Kay's Indian Names). I have been unable to find any other authority for the above. De Kay may have got it from a map of 1845, where Shewango Neck includes the whole of Montauk east of the Great Pond, but this is an error for Shagwong (q.v.).
Tooker Photo. North of Shwango in southWompenait area.
Wompenait area looking north at Driftwood Cove and Montauk .
1976 photo from cliffside Thunderbolt Ranch(Peter Hill Beard Windmill Residence).Wompenait area looking south over
September 18, 1976 Driftwood Cove
Photo circa 1900.Womponamon area from near Third House looking southwest towards ocean.
20. 443- wamponamon:the extreme eastern end of Long Island at Montauk Point where the lighthouse stands. This nameis first found recorded in the Indian deed of 1661, for the "Hither woods tract," viz.: "Whereby we did fully and firmly sell unto the said parties our neck of land . . . from . . . Wompenanit, to our uttmost bounds westward called Napeake" (Hedges's Address, 1848). It appears also as Wompenoonot (Ranger's Deeds of Montauk, 1850). In 1695, we find: "One fourth part of one whol share of that tract of land at the east end of the Island of Nassau stretching from Womponoman Point Eastward unto Napeag Beach Westward, commonly known as Meun-taucut" (E. H. R., vol. ii., p. 331). Later the name occurs as Wamponamon. This name, in its early form, Wompenanit, signifies "at the east" or "eastward." Cognate are Massachusetts Wom-panniyeu, "the east (when daylight is)"; Abnaki, Wampanoag, "the east land"; Delaware Wapan-neunk, "east" or "on the east." Wompenanit would appear, therefore, to be composed of the word for "east" with the locative -it; while Wamponamon would be the same or a similarword, with the suffix -onk, "place." Both names would thus signify "at the east," or ''to the east." Wamponamon is also the name of Lodge No. 437, F. and A. M., at Sag Harbor, a very suitable name for those that hail from "the east."
21. 452. wattuquasset: a small neck of land lying on the southwest side of Great Pond, Montauk, mentioned in the Indian deed of May 31, 1683, to John Osborne (recorded in Sessions No. i, p. 134). The name Wattuguasset is resolvable into Wattugua-es-et, "at or near the poles"; probably the "poles" of a haystack. Where the "haystack stood" is referred to in another record for land in close proximity. The components of the word are: Wattuqua, corre-bponding to Massachusetts wuttuhq, "bough," "branch", -es-et, locative, "at or near."
22. 480. wuchebehsuck :a valley on the east side of the "North Neck," Montauk, East Hampton town. The outlet of a small flaggy pond and swamp flows through the valley at certain seasons of the year. This name is recorded in the Indian deed of 1670, and in the documents relating to the same. The tract covered by this grant was formerly known as the Wuchebehsuck purchase, later as the nine-score acre purchase, or the land between the ponds. The deed gives us: "By us the fors'd parties Wuchebehsuck, a place by the fort pond, being a Valley Southward from the fort Hill to Shahchippitchage, being on ye North side ye s'd Land, midway between the great pond and fort pond, so on as straight line to Chebiakinnauhsuk, from thence to a swamp where the hay stacks stood, called Mahchongit-chage, and so through the swamp to the great pond, then straight from the hay stacks to the great pond, so along by the pond to a place calledManunkquiaug, on furthest side the reeds growing on ye South End of the great pond Eastward, and so along to the sea side to a place called Chop-pauhshapaugausuck, so straight from thence to the South Sea" (Hedges's Address, 1849, Appendix, p. 85). All the aboriginal names in the above deed, as previously given in this work, are boundaries simply. This one is no exception. Wuche-behsuck represents Wut-chebeh-suck, "at the brook of separation," or "at the bound-mark brook, or outlet." The components are: wuch=wut (Eliot), "ator on"; chebeh chachabe, or chadchabe (Eliot), "that which divides or separates" (chabenuk in Eliot, "a bound-mark"); -suck, "a brook" or an "outlet of a pond." Atchau-benuck, the southeast corner bound of Quinebaug lands in Connecticut is probably of the same derivation.
LIST OF ALGONKIAN NAMES SUITABLE FOR COUNTRY HOMES, HOTELS, CLUBS, MOTOR-BOATS, ETC.
ADCHA'ENIN, "one who goes a hunting." (Also Adcha'en.)
ADCHA'UKOMA, "hunting house."
ANA'SKAME'SET, "tree that bears acorns."
ANO'CKQUS, "a star."
ANWO'HSIN, "he rests."
APWO'NNAH, "an oyster."
ARRA'X " gull."
AWE'PESHA, "it calms."
CHE'CKEPU'CHAT, "the wild cat," an Indian so named.
CHE'KHAMPO'G, "he sweeps the water."
CHE'PEWI'SSIN, "northeast wind."
CHIKKU'PEMI'SET, "at the cedar tree."
JI'SKHAMPO'G, "he wipes up the water."
KEHCHI'PPAM, "on the shore."
KE'HTOH, "the sea."
KITO'MPANI'SHA, "break of day."
KO'DTOHKE, "top of the land."
KO'GKENU'PPE, "go quick."
KO'UAMI'SET, "at the pine tree."
KUPPO'HKOMA, "a grove," i.e., "shut-in place."
KUPPO'MUK, "a haven."
KUSSPTCHUAN, "rapid stream."
KUTSHA'MUNAT, "the lightning."
MACHI'PSCAT, "a stony path."
MA'SSATUK, "a great tree."
MA'UCHETAN, "ebb tide."
MAUTA'BON, "daylight," or "morning."
ME'TWEE, "poplar tree."
MISHA'NNEK, "a squirrel."
MISHA'NNOCK, "morning star," i.e., "great star."
MISHA'UPAN, "a great wind."
MISHO'ON, "a canoe."
MISHQUA'TUK, "cedar tree," i.e., "red tree."
MI'SSITTO'PU, "great frost."
MO'GEWE'TU, "a great house."
MO'GGETUJC, "a great tree."
MOGKE'KOMA, "a great house."
MO'HKUSSA', "burning coal."
MO'NUNKS, "ash tree."
MUCKQUETU, "he is swift."
MUNNA'NNOCK, "the moon," i.e., "wonderful star."
NEPA'NON, "a shower."
NEPA'UZ, "the sun."
NE'TOP, "my friend."
NICKQUE'NUM, "I am going."
NO'TAMI'SET, "at the oak tree."
NOTTOMOG, "a mink."
NUNNA'KOMA, "on the shore," i.e., "dry place.
O'PENOCK, "the marten" (Mustela Americana).
OUSA'MEQUIN, "yellow feather," one of the names of the famous Indian Massasoit.
OUW'AN, "the mist."
PA'PONE'TIN, "west wind."
PE'HTEAU, "it foams."
QUA'NNACUT, "the rainbow," i.e., "long mantle."
SO'CHEPO, "the snow," i.e., "it snows."
SOHSU'MO, "glory," i.e., "it shines forth."
SOWA'NISHIN, "south wind," i.e., "the wind blows from the south."
SO'WANO'HKE, "the south-land."
SUNNA'DIN, "north wind."
TAMO'CCON, "a flood tide."
TAPA'NTAM, "enough minded," or "it satisfies "
TA'PAPI'MIN, "room enough."
TOUWU'TTIN, "south wind'."
USHPUN'WISQ, "he lifts the cup."
WAMPMI'SET, "at the "chestnut tree."
WAMSU'TTA, "he has a kind heart," name of an Indian (eldest son of Massasoit).
WECHE'KUM, "the sea."
WE'NAUWE'TU, " well housed."
WISA'TTIMI'SET, "at the red-oak tree."
WO'DDISH, "a nest."
WOPA'TIN, "east wind."
WO'SOWA'NCON, "a rose."
WU'NNEOTA'N, "good town."
WUNO'HKE, "good ground."
WUSA'BANUK, "bank," "bluff," or "margin."
WUSKA'UKOMA, "grove," i.e., "new place."
WUSKA'WHAN, "a pigeon."
WUSSE'MO, "he flies."
WUSSE'NTAM, "he goes a-wooing."
WU'SSOQUATOMI'SET, "at the walnut tree."
WUTTA'HMIN, "strawberry," i.e., "heart berry."
WUTTA'NHO, "a staff."
WY'BENETT, "the wind," an Indian so named.
YOVA'WAN, "midst of the mist."
Note. Except in a few cases, the accents have been added to these words by the editor. All of the names belong to the Massachusetts (Natick) and Narragansett dialects. The correct accentuation of some words is a matter of doubt, as the Indians themselves varied in these matters not a little.
A. F. C.
Introduction by A F Chamberlain on Indian Place Names on Long Island, dated May 22, 1911
The timeliness of such historical studies as those represented by Mr. Tooker's Indian Place-Names on Long Island is emphasized by the recent burning of the Capitol at Albany, which involved the destruction of hundreds (perhaps, thousands) of original manuscripts and unprinted documents relating to the period of early settlement of parts of northeastern North America by Europeans, Dutch and English in particular. Not a few of the sources (notably the records of land-papers and kindred material in the office of the Secretary of State), from which Mr. Tooker obtained the facts enabling him to interpret accurately and beyond all possibility of doubt many Indian place-names of the region in question, perished irreparably in the conflagration. Their true etymologies could be ascertained only by the most painstaking and intelligent examination, by one deeply acquainted with the speech of the Indian inhabitants, of old deeds, boundary-descriptions, wills, etc., many of which can never again be appealed to for the same original purposes, since the flames have now consumed them altogether. It may even happen sometime that the extracts from certain of these documents (no longer in existence) to be found in the pages of Mr.Tooker's book will have to serve as the only historical or legal evidence on record concerning some of the matters with which they deal. Besides the place-names themselves, these old records often contain references to customs and habits of both whites and Indians, notes on aboriginal life and activities, etc., nowhere else set down. Incidents of hunting and fishing, methods of capturing game, accounts of native foods, and the like, are reported sometimes in connection with brief descriptions of settlements, treaties, titles to land, exchanges of property, limitations of bounds, etc. Some of the early documents formerly on record at Albany have been published in the Minutes of the Executive Council of the Province of New York (2 vols., Albany, 1910), edited by G, V. H. Paltsits, the State Historian. Here a number of the Long Island records are reproduced at full length. The lists of sachems are of especial interest. One of the most significant aspects of human history is the story of race-contact. All over the globe abundant evidences of such contact occur in geographical names, which are sometimes the only memorials of themselves which the so-called "lower" races are able to transmit to the "higher." The Red Man, however, has not been so unfortunate, for he has influenced in many ways the language, the economic life, and even the institutions of his conquerors and dispossessors.
The mass-contact of the English and the Indians in North America took place first in an Algonkian area, of which Long Island formed a part. Linguistically, the Algonkian stock, although by no means intellectually superior to their Iroquoian neighbors, seem to have influenced more the European settlers and their descendants. In an article on "Algonkian Words in American English," published in the Journal of American Folk-Lore for 1901, and in a monograph on " The Contribution of the American Indian to Human Civilization (Proc. Amer. Antiq. Soc., 1902), the writer has discussed this topic, pointing out that the contributions of the Algonkians to the dictionary of American English (past and present) amount to at least 200 words, including such terms of world-wide fame as Tammany, mugwump, totem, etc., while the element taken up from the Iroquoian dialects is very much less numerous, being chiefly limited to words which were originally place-names, but which, like Chau-tauqua, etc., have for some reason or other become common-places of our speech.
In so far as its place-names of Indian origin are concerned, Long Island is completely Algonkian, the few Iroquoian' terms listed by Mr. Tooker, such as Genissee and Swego, being due to the white man's introduction of them from other parts of New York State. The list of place-names recorded and interpreted by Mr. Tooker constitutes, as he has said, with the exception of two rather short vocabularies, obtained at the close of the eighteenth century, our sole linguistic data concerning the Indian inhabitants of Long Island at the period of European settlement. It is fortunate that we have, from a competent Algonkinist, to use a somewhat new word, this detailed study of nearly 500 names. For this not only the investigators in the field of American Indian philology will be grateful, but all those likewise who are interested in the phenomena of race-contact and the problems connected with the accretion of the vocabulary of modern English from foreign sources. One interesting feature of these researches into the origin and the history of Indian place-names is the turning up occasionally of a word, derived from the aboriginal tongue of the locality, which has passed into the common every-day speech of the English settlers, or the Dutch, as the case may be. In discussing the name Seapoose, Mr. Tooker chronicles just such a term. Even at the present day, we are told, "the inlets that are opened in the beaches on the Southside in the towns of East and Southampton, in order that the ocean may flow into the various ponds and bays, or vice versa, are known as the Seapoose." In a record of 1650, the pay for working "at the seapoose" is stated to be three shillings per day. In recent times the word has been applied both in Long Island and New Jersey (in the form "sea-puss") to the "under-tow" of the ocean. The as Coram or Corum; Pauquacumsuck as Qiiaconstick; Sagaponack as Sagg or Sag; Secommecock as Mecock; Winnecomac as Comae. Remarkable in this respect is Quaquanantuck, which is found as Quaquan-tuck, Quantuck, Quaqua, Quagga, Quag, etc. On the other hand, we learn that in 1889 the name of the Post-Office Sagg was changed to Sagaponack.
Among the many place-names on record as of Indian origin, according to the early settlers of Long Island, are some "ghost-words," as Skeat, the English lexicographer, terms them due to mistakes of scribes, etc. Such, e. g., is Minaussums for Winnecroscorns. Occasionally the white man has deliberately altered the form or the spelling of the aboriginal name. This is the case with Marra-tooka, which, by way of MarrUuck, goes back to Mattituck. The white man's influence is seen also in the introduction of names from other and kindred Indian tongues, and in the "invention" or "improvement" of such.Thus, Ihpetonga, Kioshk, and Minissais are Od-jibwa (Chippewa) words introduced by the late H. R. Schoolcraft, and Kissena comes from a like source. To Mr. G. R. Howell is due the making of Missipaug, Minnesunk, and Nippaug.The spelling of the Indian names, both in Dutch and English, has varied extremely; so much, indeed, that the belonging of some of them together would hardly be suspected were it not for the proof furnished by the original records. For Setauket, e. g., we find Setaulcott, Selasacott, and (in Dutch notation) Sichteyhackey.
Pseudo-Indian names occur, as Mr. Tooker points out, in Hoggenoch corrupted from "Hog's Neck," Oquenock (from "Oak Neck"). Syosset (from Dutch Schouts), Wainscot (a good English word), etc., the forms of which approximate sometimes so closely real Indian words that the historical records alone can settle the question of their real origin. In "Dix's Hills" is remembered an Indian named "Dick Pichegan," and in quite a number of other place-names only part of the personal appellation (Indian or English) of some sannup or squaw has survived. In his Preliminary Remarks Mr. Tooker has called attention to other interesting characteristics of some of these place-names.
The Indian Place-Names on Long Island, besides serving the more scholarly and serious purposes of the historian and the philologist, ought, and its author has labored personally to that end, to help strengthen the custom, now considerably in vogue, of employing names of American Indian origin to designate villages and towns the outgrowth of the present day, estates and seats in the country or at the sea-shore, camps, hotels, cottages, vessels large and small, etc. This can so often be accomplished with no injury to our mother-tongue and with a proper remembrance of those who tenanted the woods and sailed the seas before us. Much can be done by the simple restoration of names formerly in use. Notable examples of such restoration are to be met with in "Sagamore Hill" (here, perhaps, Mohannis, the sagamore himself, might well have been remembered, as the hill really bore his name once), perpetuated by Mr. Roosevelt, and in " Mashimuet Park," presented by Mrs. Sage to the town of Sag Harbor. Finally, the editor desires to express his pleasure in seeing preserved in book-form the results of the careful and suggestive studies of his friend and colleague, and in finding them dedicated to one whose gracious benefactions have made themselves potent in all the walks of economic life, religion, art and science.
Alexander F. Chamberlain.
Clark University, Worcester, Mass. May 22, 1911